Engineering properties of rocks and soils pdf
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SOILS AND ROCKS - 4TH EDITION
Foundation Engineering Handbook pp Cite as. Such materials are natural systems that are normally composed of solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The solid phases are contributed by particulate matter of inorganic or organic character. The liquid phase is usually an aqueous electrolyte solution. The gaseous phase in contact and exchange with the atmosphere may have a different composition from the latter, depending on location and biologic activity within the soil. Since water and air content vary with variation in environmental conditions, soils are normally characterized by their particulate components, while the air and water contents are considered together as porosity. However, in assaying the actual physical properties of a soil system, due consideration must be given to the volume percentages of the component phases as well as to the distribution of the different phases throughout the system.
Engineering Properties of Soils and Rocks, Third Edition serves as a guide to the engineering properties and behavior of soils and rocks. The text also complements other texts on rock and soil mechanics. The book covers topics such as the properties and classification of soils such as tills and other kinds of soils related to cold climates, tropical soils, and organic soils such as peat. The text also includes the engineering behavior and properties, classification and description, discontinuities, and weathering of rocks and rock masses. The monograph is recommended for engineers who would like to know about the properties of soils and rocks and the application of their study in the field of engineering.
Rock , in geology , naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is comprised and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are 1 igneous rocks, which have solidified from molten material called magma; 2 sedimentary rocks, those consisting of fragments derived from preexisting rocks or of materials precipitated from solutions; and 3 metamorphic rocks, which have been derived from either igneous or sedimentary rocks under conditions that caused changes in mineralogical composition , texture, and internal structure. These three classes, in turn, are subdivided into numerous groups and types on the basis of various factors, the most important of which are chemical, mineralogical, and textural attributes. Igneous rocks are those that solidify from magma , a molten mixture of rock-forming minerals and usually volatiles such as gases and steam. Since their constituent minerals are crystallized from molten material, igneous rocks are formed at high temperatures.