First philosophy fundamental problems and readings in philosophy pdf
First Philosophy II: Knowledge and Reality - Second Edition - Broadview PressFirst Philosophy: Knowing and Being brings together over thirty classic and contemporary readings in epistemology and metaphysics. Mindful of the intrinsic difficulty of the material, the editors provide comprehensive introductions both to each topic and to each individual selection. By presenting a detailed discussion of the historical and intellectual background to each piece, the editors enable readers to approach the material without unnecessary barriers to understanding. A brief introduction to arguments is included, as are appendices on terminology and philosophical puzzles and paradoxes. First Philosophy is also available in complete and concise editions, which cover a full range of introductory philosophical topics. In my judgement, its selection of pieces on the philosophical issues involved in thinking about knowledge, science, God, mind, and free will could hardly be bettered.
Philosophy and Christian Theology
In analytic philosophy , philosophy of language investigates the nature of language , the relations between language, language users, and the world. Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell were pivotal figures in analytic philosophy's " linguistic turn ". In continental philosophy , language is not studied as a separate discipline. Rather, it is an inextricable part of many other areas of thought, such as phenomenology , structural semiotics ,  hermeneutics , existentialism , deconstruction and critical theory. In the dialogue Cratylus , Plato considered the question of whether the names of things were determined by convention or by nature. He criticized conventionalism because it led to the bizarre consequence that anything can be conventionally denominated by any name.
Fundamental Problems and Readings in Philosophy. Edited by: “Andrew Bailey and Robert Martin's First Philosophy: Knowing and Being is exemplary.
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It is not easy to say what metaphysics is. It is no longer possible to define metaphysics that way, for two reasons. First, a philosopher who denied the existence of those things that had once been seen as constituting the subject-matter of metaphysics—first causes or unchanging things—would now be considered to be making thereby a metaphysical assertion.
Many of the doctrines central to Christianity have important philosophical implications or presuppositions. In this article, we begin with a brief general discussion of the relationship between philosophy and Christian dogma, and then we turn our attention to three of the most philosophically challenging Christian doctrines: the trinity, the incarnation, and the atonement. We take these three as our focus because, unlike for example doctrines about providence or the attributes of God, these are distinctive to Christian theology and, unlike for example the doctrine of original sin or the Real Presence of Christ in the eucharist, these have been the subject of a great deal of discussion over the past couple of decades. In the history of Christian theology, philosophy has sometimes been seen as a natural complement to theological reflection, whereas at other times practitioners of the two disciplines have regarded each other as mortal enemies. Some early Christian thinkers such as Tertullian were of the view that any intrusion of secular philosophical reason into theological reflection was out of order. Thus, even if certain theological claims seemed to fly in the face of the standards of reasoning defended by philosophers, the religious believer should not flinch. Other early Christian thinkers, such as St.